Featured on Frontier Co-op Wholesale
If you need help navigating or ordering from this site, you can call Online Customer Assistance during business hours (Monday through Friday, 7 am - 6 pm Central Time) at 1-800-669-3275. We've answered some of the most frequently asked questions below. If you don't see the information you're looking for, you can email Customer Care.
What does "certified organic" mean?
"Certified organic" is a labeling term that denotes products produced under the authority of the Organic Foods Production Act. The act provides for a National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) that develops and recommends the standards for the National Organic Program (NOP) as administered by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A certified organic designation means that a state or private certification organization that is accredited by the USDA has verified that the product meets its strict organic standards. The certifier inspects the location where the organic product is produced and handled to ensure that all the rules necessary to meet USDA organic standards are being followed. Companies that handle or process organic food before it gets to the local supermarket or restaurant must also be certified and inspected annually to ensure continued compliance. (In order to maintain their accredited certifier status with the USDA, certifiers are required to conduct annual on-site inspections of all their clients.)
Who is your organic certifier?
Frontier organic products are all certified by the leading third-party organic certifier Quality Assurance International (QAI).
Is there any difference between an organic oil and a non-organic oil?
Certified organic oils come from plants that are cultivated, harvested and distilled in accordance with certified organic regulations. Certified organic growers must always take long-term sustainability into account as part of the certification process, and supporting organic farmers is a way for the consumer to commit to the health and sustainability of our planet.
Are products labeled "natural" the same as "organic?"
No, the terms "natural" and "organic" are not interchangeable. While the term "natural" suggests that products have been minimally processed or are free from synthetic ingredients, there are no federal regulations that must be complied with in order to label a botanical product "natural." None of our products have been treated with irradiation or chemicals such as ethylene oxide (EtO), and there are a number of other ingredients and processes that we do not allow for our products — but none of these are regulated by the government. On the other hand, products labeled "organic" must be certified to have met the government's strict organic standards by an USDA-accredited third-party certifier.
What is organic agriculture?
In a nutshell, organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm. Or in the words of the National Organics Standard Board, "Organic agriculture is an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony." More definitions and extensive resource links are available at the USDA's Organic Production and Organic Food: Information Access Tools.
Can you help me understand certain organic claims? For example, what is the difference between 100% Organic vs. Made with Organic?
Here are the basic USDA regulations for the four recognized types of organic claims: Products labeled "100 Percent Organic" must show an ingredients list, the name and address of the handler (bottler, distributor, importer, manufacturer, packer, processor, etc.) of the finished product, and the name/seal of the organic certifier. All ingredients must be certified organic (excluding water and salt). Products labeled "Organic" must contain at least 95 percent organic ingredients. The label must contain an ingredient list that identifies the organic, as well as the non-organic, ingredients in the product and the name of the organic certifier. A minimum of 95% of the ingredients (excluding water and salt) must be certified organic, and any non-organic ingredients used must be approved for use in an organic product by the USDA. Products labeled "Made with Organic (specified ingredients or food groups)" must contain at least 70 percent organic ingredients (excluding water and salt) and up to 30% non-organic agricultural ingredients or other ingredients approved for use in organic products by the USDA. The label must contain an ingredients list that identifies the organic, as well as the non-organic, ingredients in the product, along with the name of the organic certifier. If a product contains less than 70 percent organic ingredients, the product can specify organic ingredients only on the ingredient panel. The product cannot use the word "organic" on the principal display panel or display any organic certifier seals.
Are organic foods more expensive than conventionally grown ones?
It's true that organic foods which have the same growing, harvesting, transportation and storage costs as conventional items usually have additional costs associated with stricter growing regulations of organic certification and smaller scale production that contribute to higher prices. This was dramatically the case when organics first came on the market. But the price gap is continually shrinking as increased demand for organics and a more robust organic supply chain are driving down the cost of organic foods, making them much more competitive with non-organic ones. Furthermore, many argue that from the perspective of the true cost of our food — factoring in all the indirect environmental and social costs of conventional food production, such as cleanup of polluted water, replacement of eroded soils, and costs of health care for farmers and their workers — organic foods are already less costly than those grown with synthetic chemicals.
Is organic food healthier?
Organic farming techniques provide a safer, more sustainable environment for everyone — growers, consumers and all of us who share the world environment. There is substantial research suggesting links to cancer and other diseases from the synthetic insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and fertilizers used on non-organic crops. And the Organic Center provides links to numerous scientific resources and fact sheets that suggest some organically produced foods may be more nutritious than non-organic ones as well.
Are organic products completely free of pesticide residues?
The 1995 definition of organic production by the National Organics Standard Board notes that "Organic agriculture practices cannot ensure that products are completely free of residues; however, methods are used to minimize pollution from air, soil and waters." These methods include buffer zones between conventional and organic fields, a three-year waiting period before previously non-organic land can be used for organic crops, and placing organic products in storage on the higher shelves to avoid cross contamination from non-organic products. Products are tested by certification agencies for contamination in response to a complaint, to spot-check certain crops, or if there is any evidence of contamination. The principal guidelines for organic production require using materials and practices that enhance the ecological balance of natural systems and integrate farming into the whole ecology.
What is an absolute?
Absolutes are not true essential oils, although they are aromatic, volatile and used in aromatherapy and perfumery. They are produced by alcohol extraction, after which the alcohol is removed by vacuum distillation. The extraction is done on something called the concrete — a thick, fragrant material extracted from the plant with a hydrocarbon solvent such as hexane. The concrete contains the essential oil as well as fatty acids and waxes. Alcohol dissolves the essential oil, and the non-fragrant components either precipitate or are filtered out. This method is used for delicate plants (usually flowers), where heat distillation would damage or distort the essential oil, or for plants with a very low essential oil content that makes distillation impractical. The most used aromatherapy absolutes are jasmine and rose.
What allergens are present in your facility?
We manufacture some products within our facility with ingredients that contain allergens. When ingredients with allergens first arrive at our facility, we are careful to identify them, tag them and isolate them in storage. When we process products that have any of these ingredients, we do a special cleanup afterwards to prevent the allergens from carrying over to subsequent processing. We provide full disclosure of all ingredients on our labels, so you can check there for any allergens you wish to avoid.
What is your policy on animal testing?
None of our products are tested on animals.
Is separation in avocado oil a sign of a quality problem?
No. Haziness in avocado oil is of no consequence and is, in fact, an indication of natural, unrefined oil with the complete beneficial constituents. As with any skin care oil — but especially pronounced in avocado oil — some cloudiness may develop if the oil is exposed to cold temperatures. This is most apt to occur when the oil is shipped in cold weather or stored in very cool warehouses stores.
This cloudiness is NOT an indication of poor quality, age or rancidity. Quality problems are indicated by an off aroma and elevated peroxide value. (All Aura Cacia skin care oils are checked for acceptable peroxide levels before being bottled and induction sealed to maintain freshness.)
Usually the cloudiness can be eliminated by placing the bottle in a warm water bath. Precipitate in the oil will also melt when applied to the skin because of body temperature.
How much caffeine is in your tea?
The caffeine content of tea varies depending on a number of factors, including the variety and age of the leaves, the size of the leaves, the environment where they were grown, and the method of steeping. The general range of caffeine in black tea is about 14 to 70 mg per 8-ounce brewed cup. An 8-ounce cup of brewed green tea will contain about 24 to 45 mg of caffeine. Oolong’s caffeine content is generally between black and green tea and white tea similar to green tea in being low in caffeine.
Does Aura Cacia distill its own essential oils?
We have distilled oils for research purposes, but it isn't practical for us to distill for production. We are not equipped to consistently meet either the quantity or the quality requirements for Aura Cacia oils by distilling the oils ourselves.
Approximately how many drops are in 1/8-ounce, 1/2-ounce, 2-ounce and 4-ounce bottles of essential oil?
While the number of drops varies according to the consistency of the oil, the average drops per bottle for the sizes in the question are, from smallest to largest, about 72 drops, 288 drops, 1,152 drops and 2,304 drops.
Is it a problem to have essential oils freeze?
No. Since essential oils don't contain water, they don't actually freeze. Cold temperatures can cause one or more constituents to crystallize. The quality isn't affected, although sometimes the crystallized constituents may not blend completely back into the solution once the oil is "thawed." This results in a "cloudy" appearance. Placing the oil in a warm location or warm-water bath will eliminate the cloudiness.
Are German and Roman chamomile related?
German chamomile (*Matricaria recutita*) and Roman chamomile (*Chamaemelum nobile*) are different plants of the same family (Asteraceae) that have similar properties. As essential oils, they are also similar, but they differ in one significant respect. German chamomile oil has a blue color resulting from a constituent called chamazulene that's produced during the distillation process. Roman chamomile has little or no chamazulene, and therefore its essential oil lacks the vivid blue color that characterizes German chamomile oil.
How is lavandin different from lavender?
Lavender oil is distilled from the flowers of *Lavendula angustifolia*, or true lavender. Lavandin is a cross between true lavender and spike lavender. Lavandin has a higher camphor content than lavender oil. It is used on sore muscles and for its sanitizing and deodorizing properties. Lavandin is less expensive than lavender oil and is more abundant. It is often used as an adulterant to, or substitution for, true lavender essential oil.
What is the difference between Tasmanian lavender and the other lavenders?
Tasmanian lavender was developed about 100 years ago when a famous lavender expert from England moved his operation to Tasmania, an island off the coast of southern Australia that has a similar climate to England. He brought the seeds that carried the traits he was looking for spent nearly 50 years developing a special variety in Tasmania that has an exceptionally soft, sweet and floral aroma. Since the farm and production is small, the price of Tasmanian lavender tends to be high.
Why do some peppermints smell different than others?
Aura Cacia sells pure, unadulterated essential oil that has the full, complete aroma of natural peppermint essential oil (*Mentha x. piperita*). A stronger, more intense menthol aroma (especially right out of the bottle) is characteristic of peppermint oil that has been re-distilled. Re-distilled peppermint oil is used to flavor foods and is the flavor component in baking flavors and extracts (like ours), but only complete peppermint essential oil is appropriate for aromatherapy use. Redistillation is done to remove some of the slower-to-evaporate components of the oil, giving it a more complex, but less menthol, aroma. Oils may also smell different if the peppermint has been combined with other cheaper mint oils, such as corn mint or synthetic menthol.
What is rose otto?
Rose otto is the steam or water distilled essential oil of the fresh petals of the damask rose (*Rosa damascena*). It is considered the finest rose oil in the world (and is also the most expensive). Also known as attar of rose, rose otto has an intensely warm, rich, deeply rosy scent.
The term "otto" is derived from "Ottoman" in Ottoman Empire. During the rule of the Ottoman Empire, rose oil production spread to the many Ottoman provinces, including — in the mid-fifteenth century — certain areas of what is now Bulgaria. These areas are ideally suited to rose flower production, and they soon became the major producers of rose otto. Today Bulgaria and Turkey provide virtually all of the world's production of rose otto.
Where do your essential oils come from?
Some essential oils — such as peppermint, spearmint, Texas cedarwood, and citrus oils — are commercially produced in the U.S. However, most are produced in other parts of the world where the particular plants thrive.
How should essential oils be stored? How long do they last?
It's best to store essential oils in closed, glass bottles away from heat and light. While some essential oils may stay good almost indefinitely under ideal conditions, we recommend two years as a good rule of thumb for most oils. Citrus and conifer oils have a shorter shelf life due to certain components that react to oxygen in a way that degrades the oil over time. These oils are best used within 18 months of the manufacture date on the bottle.
Is wild chamomile related to German and Roman chamomile?
Although, like German and Roman chamomile, wild chamomile (*Ormenis multicaulis*) is in the family Asteraceae, it is only vaguely similar to the other chamomiles, differing significantly in aroma, chemical composition and uses.
Is Frontier a gluten-free facility?
While spices and herbs are naturally gluten-free, we do not test for gluten in all products, only those certified gluten-free (by GFCO) under the Simply Organic brand. We don't make gluten-free claims for any other products because even tiny amounts of gluten can be a problem, and these may be present in our facility or the facilities of our suppliers.
Do Frontier products contain any genetically modified ingredients (GMOs)?
We no longer receive or produce any products in our Food and Flavorings division with GMO ingredients or GMO-suspect ingredients, and all finished goods are free of GMO ingredients and suspected GMO ingredients.
What is a hydrosol?
The leftover water from the steam or water distillation of an essential oil is called a hydrosol. Hydrosols are mostly water, with the water-soluble components of the plant not found in the essential oil. They usually contain a very tiny bit of essential oil — at least enough to give the hydrosol the faint aroma of the oil. They are considered great additions to skin toners and sprays, masks and lotions where they are valued for their astringent, soothing and rejuvenating qualities. Because they are almost all water, they can be used directly on the skin without dilution.
Are your products irradiated?
Frontier has always been against using irradiation for sterilization of spices, herbs and foods, and we do not use any ingredients or carry any products that are irradiated under any of our brands (Frontier Co-op, Simply Organic, and Aura Cacia).
Why does Aura Cacia use jojoba oil in so many products?
Jojoba oil is actually a liquid wax rather than a true oil, and it's very similar to the sebum of the skin. Because it forms a light, non-greasy layer that does not clog the skins pores, it's often used in all types of skin preparations. And because it isn't a fat, it doesn't go rancid and thereby helps extend the shelf life of other oils to which it's been added.
What does kosher certified mean?
In order for a product to be kosher certified, a kosher certification company must inspect the production process from start to finish, checking every container and all conveying, processing and packaging machinery to ensure that nothing non-kosher can get into the food.
Who is your kosher certifier?
Frontier products are certified by Kosher Supervision of America (KSA).
Are your products kosher?
Most Frontier spices and seasonings are kosher. This information is on product labels and is also accessible online on each item information page.
Why don't you provide any information about the medicinal uses of herbs?
In a nutshell, because it's against the law. There are strict Federal regulations prohibiting any herb supplier from making health claims for their products. Our practices comply with those FDA and FTC regulations and follow the recommendations of the American Herbal Products Association.
Do your products contain MSG?
We do not add monosodium glutamate (MSG) to any of our products. FDA regulations require that if MSG is added to a product it must be identified as monosodium glutamate on the label. Some of our products — such as nutritional yeast and tomato powder — contain some free glutamic acid, which may combine with sodium present in the product to naturally form MSG. While the FDA classifies MSG and glutamic acid as generally safe, people who are sensitive to MSG and glutamic acid may suffer from adverse reactions.
Why isn't there nutritional information on most spice labels?
Most of our single ingredient spices (that is, basil, fennel, cumin, etc.) don't contain any reportable nutrients. Reportable nutrients are amounts significant enough to warrant reporting according to FDA food labeling regulations. (See the reportable nutrients FAQ for more info.)
Where can I find nutritional information for your products?
All of the food products and dietary supplements that we sell that have reportable nutrients (amounts significant enough to warrant reporting according to FDA food labeling regulations) will feature a Nutrition Facts Panel or Supplement Facts Panel on each item information web page. (See the reportable nutrients FAQ for more info.)
What are reportable nutrients?
FDA food labeling regulations (21CFR101) exempt nutrient listings for foods that contain insignificant amounts of all of the nutrients and food components in the standard declaration of nutrition information. (An insignificant amount of a nutrient is defined as the amount that would show a zero in the nutrition labeling, or "less than 1 gram'' in the case of total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and protein.) Since the nutrient levels are based on the amount customarily consumed by a person at one "eating occasion" (defined by the FDA as 1/4 teaspoon), most spices do not meet the threshold of having reportable nutrients.
Are organic products produced in other countries required to meet U.S. organic regulations?
Yes, all organic products sold as certified organic in the United States are required to follow the U.S. standards and be certified by a USDA-accredited certifier.
How are your products processed?
We do not regulate the methods our suppliers use to grow, harvest, and process the products we purchase from them. Processing may vary from crop to crop and amongst suppliers. The way in which a suppliers process their crops is often considered proprietary. They determine the best method to produce a high quality product. Our Quality Assurance department has researched and developed a set of specifications for each product that we offer, and we ensure all products meet those specs with a comprehensive quality program.
How can I tell if my herbs and spices are still good?
Our bottled spices and blends are freshness dated — the date the product is best used by for maximum freshness is printed on the bottom of each bottle. Check that date for unopened products. For opened packaged products and bulk products, follow the guidelines below.
How long will my opened spices last?
General Guidelines for the Shelf Life of Opened Botanical Products
The potency of botanical products fades over time at different rates. Grinding exposes more surface area to the air, so ground spices lose their freshness more quickly than whole spices. As you can see in the table below, different parts of the plant age differently as well.
Whole herbs, spices and seasoning blends
Leaves and flowers — 1 to 2 years
Seeds and barks — 2 to 3 years
Roots — 3 years
Ground herbs, spices and seasoning blends
Leaves — 1 year
Seeds and barks — 1 year
Roots — 2 years
Whole herbs, spices and seasoning blends
Vanilla beans — 2 years
Others — 4 years
How long do teas stay good?
Correctly stored tea should be good for up to a year.
What are the most common solvents used to adulterate essential oils? Do they pose any health concerns?
Solvents used to adulterate essential oils are generally colorless and odorless and therefore not easily detectable without resorting to gas chromatography testing. Solvents we've found in essential oils include:
- -Diethyl Phthalate (DEP)
- Propylene Glycol (DPG)
- Isopropyl Myristate (PEA)
- Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol (PEA)
- Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT)
- Methylene Chloride
- Benzyl Chloride
- Methyl Ethyl Ketone
These solvents range from relatively benign (ethanol) to very hazardous (toluene) chemicals. Regardless of individual health effects, they do not belong in essential oils. They could affect the health benefits of the oils, and they may cause allergic or toxic reactions in some individuals.
Do you test essential oils?
We test every pre-shipment sample of essential oils before making a purchase. Then, after we purchase an essential oil, every shipment we receive is tested to make sure it continues to meet all quality and purity standards.
What specific tests do you perform for essential oils?
Our essential oil testing includes both physical testing — sensory evaluation, optical rotation and specific gravity — and gas chromatography (GC) testing for every oil. This extensive testing provides complete confidence that our oils are 100% pure and authentic, and we offer a quality guarantee to our customers.
What is a therapeutic grade oil?
There is no such grading system for essential oils. Companies sometimes use this term in marketing to try to differentiate aromatherapy oils from essential oils used in flavoring and food. Aromatherapy oils should be pure, complete and unadulterated high quality oils. But because the term "therapeutic grade" isn't based on established standards or regulation, it can be — and often is — used without regard to the quality of the oil.
What is the difference between a fragrance oil and an essential oil?
Essential oils are distilled from the leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, tops, or fruits of plants. They are the highly concentrated, volatile, aromatic components of the plants or plant parts from which they are distilled. A fragrance is a combination of various natural and synthetic aroma chemicals, created in the lab by an aroma chemist. Fragrances attempt to mimic the aroma of an essential oil or the aroma of a plant that doesn't have an essential oil (an apple for example), or to create an entirely new scent. Fragrances are used in perfumery and to scent all types of products, such as toiletries, soaps, room fresheners, paper, tobacco products and paints. Only pure essential oils should be used in aromatherapy.
Where are the best places to apply oils for absorption?
Essential oils can be applied almost anywhere on the body (avoid the eyes, of course). However, the fastest absorption occurs in areas where you have lots of blood vessels close to the surface of the skin. (Many of these are also called pressure points.) The soles of the feet, the wrists, neck and behind the ears are all great spots for applying oils to improve absorption. Warmth also plays a role — your body doesn't absorb oils as well when it's cold. The underarm is also an ideal place to apply oils; it has lots of blood vessels and is warm as well.
Can you put undiluted oils directly on your skin?
In general, this should be avoided, and oils should only be used with a recommended dilution based on the particular situation of the person and the intended use of the oil (from 1-10%). A few oils, like lavender and tea tree, can occasionally be applied directly, but in general, dilution is always recommended. With any oil we recommend a skin patch test. Always use caution.
Can you use oils in food products?
We don't recommend using essential oils for flavoring food at home due to safety concerns.
Why doesnt Aura Cacia have health benefits on their labels?
Aromatherapy products are regulated by the FDA as cosmetics and must conform to cosmetic labeling regulations. Aura Cacia labels all products in compliance with regulations in order to protect users. Not all companies comply with the law — that's why you may see competing products making claims or statements about the product's supposed benefits that you won't see on an Aura Cacia label.
What causes photosensitivity and what oils cause it?
Oils that contain furocoumarins can cause skin reactions if used on skin that is then exposed to ultraviolet light. These photosensitive reactions may be as mild as slight reddening of the skin, while severe cases can result in acute lesions known as bullock dermatitis. This dermatitis will resolve itself in a few weeks; however, the accompanying hyper-pigmentation (brown spots on the skin) can take months or years to fully disappear. Bergamot, which contains the furocoumarin bergaptene, is especially likely to cause reactions. We sell bergaptene-free bergamot (bergamot BF) to eliminate this risk. Other oils we carry that might cause photosensitive reactions include ginger, grapefruit, lemon, lime, mandarin orange and tangerine.
How do I go about setting up a wholesale account?
Businesses that resell our products and qualified buying clubs may join our member-owned cooperative. There is a one-time $10 membership fee. There is also a member application that must be filled out. Members receive: our low member prices, a share in Frontier's profits in relation to purchases, and the right to vote on important policy issues and for Board directors. See our Membership page for complete details.
Can I set up a wholesale account as an individual?
No, but we do offer an option for individuals to purchase at wholesale member cost: a buying club. A buying club is a group of a minimum of five households that order together as a group. The buying club must be named and have one person in charge as the coordinator who provides his or her social security number on the application, along with a list of the members of the club and their addresses. We will send all members our annual catalog and monthly sale flyers.
Can I set up an account if my business is in Canada?
Yes. Canadian accounts have the same requirements for a membership fee and an application. We also require an international version of the W-9 form (Form W-8BEN — Certificate of Foreign Status of Beneficial Owner for United States Tax Withholding) be filled out, since there is not a U.S. Employer Identification Number or Social Security number. However, to save shipping costs, we recommend that you try working with one of our Canadian distributors. Please call our Customer Service Department at (800) 669-3275 for assistance.
When will I get my order?
Delivery time is primarily dependent on the shipping method for your order. Most of our orders are shipped Economy Rate. It's our most economical option and the method most often used for free shipping. Economy Rate shipping is available for packages up to nine pounds going to residential addresses in the continental United States. Most Economy Rate orders arrive within 10 business days, but delays are possible. FedEx Home Delivery and 3-day and 2-day expedited shipping also are options (at additional cost). USPS Priority Mail and Parcel Post delivery times vary widely and are not guaranteed.
Does Frontier have a minimum order requirement?
No. There is no minimum order size required to order from Frontier.
What is your return policy?
We accept returns within 60 days of the invoice date. Please contact us for pre-approval on requests for replacement merchandise or credits prior to returning product to us. Freight and handling charges on returns or mistakenly ordered goods will be the responsibility of the customer. If your order arrives damaged, please notify us immediately. Contact us at 1-800-669-3275.
What is the shipping cost on an order?
We offer free shipping on orders of $250 or more shipped within the contiguous U.S. Orders of $400 or more shipped FedEx Ground to Alaska and Hawaii are shipped free as well. Orders under $250 are charged the published rate of the shipper plus a handling fee of $3.50.
Do you ship internationally?
Frontier is no longer able to ship orders directly to international addresses. We recommend you contact the United Natural Foods, Inc. (UNFI) International Account Supervisor at 860-779-2800 (ext. 32527) regarding international shipping options for our products. Complete contact information is below.
Please contact Deborah S. Sparling (email@example.com) at UNFI to order internationally shipped Frontier products:
Deborah S. Sparling
International Account Supervisor
260 Lake Rd., Dayville, CT 06241
860-779-2800 EXT. 32527
Frontier can ship to you at a U.S. shipping address under regular domestic terms. However, Frontier is not responsible for additional shipping costs, documentation, broker fees, customs clearance and duty fees. Upon request, Frontier can provide an invoice that lists the country of origin for bulk herbs and spices.
Note that we do not ship to Taiwan, Singapore, Korea and or New Zealand. This is primarily due to variances in the Organic Standards between the United States and those nations.
How will you pack my order?
We use 100% post consumer waste recycled fiber boxes, soy ink printing, and recycled and recyclable packaging that is sourced locally.
Why do you use packing peanuts and what are they made of?
We feel our 100% biodegradable starch-based (75% corn, 25% potato starch) packing peanuts are the best currently available material to both protect our products in shipment and minimize our environmental footprint. For many years we avoided polystyrene packing peanuts by using recycled shredded newspaper for packing, but we received a growing number of customer complaints about the newspaper not protecting the orders adequately. We reluctantly switched to polystyrene packing peanuts for a period of time when we were unable to find biodegradable ones of acceptable quality. We continued sampling and testing, however, and found the biodegradable packing peanuts we currently use, which our tests show cushion shipments as well as the polystyrene ones they replace. We have also discontinued re-use of incoming polystyrene peanut and notified suppliers not to ship to us using polystyrene packing peanuts, so we can provide our customers with only 100% biodegradable packing material. Consumers and businesses receiving shipments containing the biodegradable packing peanuts are encouraged to re-use or recycle them or to dispose of them by composting (they dissolve in water).